Senin, 14 September 2009

Use History Siwak (Salvadora persica)

Use the tools oral hygiene have begun centuries ago. Previous human use cleaning equipment varying in line with social development, technology and culture. A wide range of simple equipment used to clean their mouth from the remnants of food, ranging from toothpicks, wooden sticks, tree twigs, cloth, feathers, bones of animals to quill. Among the traditional tools that they use in cleaning the mouth and teeth are siwak or Chewing wood stick. Wood is traditional though, is the first step the transition / transition to the modern toothbrush and mouth is the best purifier today.

Miswak (Chewing Stick) has been used by the Babylonians since 7000 years ago, which was then used also in the age of Greek and Roman empire, the Jews, Egyptians and people of Islamic empire. Siwak has different names in each community, such as for example in the Middle East called the miswak, siwak or wine, in Tanzania called the miswak, and in Pakistan and India called the datan or miswak. Use of Chewing stick (wooden chew) derived from plants that vary in each country. In the Middle East, the main source is often used Arak tree (Salvadora persica), in West Africa that is used is lemon tree (Citrus aurantifolia) and orange trees (Citrus sinesis). Senna plant roots (Cassiva vinea) used by black Americans, African Laburnum (Cassia sieberianba) used in Sierre Leone and Neem (Azadirachta indica) is widely used in Indian subcontinent.

Although siwak previously been used in a variety of culture and cultures around the world, but the influence of the spread of Islam and its application to clean the teeth of the most influential. Siwak own term in reality has been widely used during the Prophet Muhammad's prophetic mission which began around 543 AD Prophet Muhammad peace 'alaihi wa sallam said: "Had it not necessary to burden my ummah will instruct them to be praying bersiwak each (in another narration: each will wudoo')." Prophet looked at health and oral hygiene is important, so he always recommends to his wife siwak to always prepare for it until the end.

Siwak continue to be used almost in all parts of the Middle East, Pakistan, Nepal, India, Africa and Malaysia, particularly in rural areas. Most of them use it because of religious, cultural and social. Muslims in the Middle East and surrounding areas using siwak at least 5 times a day in addition they also use a regular toothbrush. Research conducted by Erwin and Lewis (1989) states that the user siwak has plagued low relativity and disease damage teeth even if they consume foods rich in carbohydrates.



Plant Morphology and Habitat Siwak

Siwak or miswak, is part of the stems, roots or twigs of plants that most of Salvadora persica grown in the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Siwak-shaped rod taken from the roots and branches of plants arak (Salvadora persica) with diameters ranging from 0.1 cm to 5 cm. Arak tree is a small tree like shrub with stems branching, diameter more than 1 foot. If the skin exfoliated slightly whitish color and has a lot of fiber cascades. Brown roots and the inside is white. It smelled like celery and it was a bit spicy.

Siwak eroding and cleaning function in the mouth. Siwak own words derived from Arabic 'yudlik' which means to massage (massage). Siwak is more than a regular toothbrush, because in addition to the elastic fiber trunk and do not damage teeth, although under strong pressure, siwak also has natural antimicrobial content and antidecay system (antipembusuk system). Trunk siwak a small diameter, has a high flexibility ability to bend to the mouth area can be accurately and erode the plaque on the teeth. Powder is also safe and healthy for the development of gum.



Chemical content of Siwak Wood Trunk

Al-Lafi and Ababneh (1995) conducted a study of wood and reported that siwak siwak contains natural minerals that can kill and inhibit bacteria growth, eroded plaque, prevent cavities and gum care. Siwak has a useful chemical content, including:

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Antibacterial Acids, such as astringents, abrasives and detergents that function to kill bacteria, prevent infection, stop the bleeding of the gums. The use of fresh wood siwak first time, will feel a little spicy and a little burn, because there is a similar content of mustard which is the acid antibacterial substances.
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Chloride content of such chemical, Pottasium, sodium bicarbonate, Fluoride, Silica, Sulfur, Vitamin C, Trimetilamin, Salvadorin, Tannin and several other minerals that serve to clean the teeth, and whiten your teeth and gums healthy. These materials are often extracted as a building block of toothpaste.
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Natural aroma oils that taste and smell the fresh, which can freshen the mouth and eliminate odor.
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Enzymes that prevent the formation of plaque which is the cause of gingivitis and the main cause of tooth prematurely date.
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Anti Decay Agent (Zat anti decay) and Antigermal System, which acts like Penicilin decrease the number of bacteria in the mouth and prevent decay. Siwak also stimulates saliva production, which itself is an organic saliva that protects the mouth and clean the mouth.

According to the Lewis (1982), chemical studies of these plants has been done since the 19th century, and found a large amount of chloride, fluoride, trimetilamin and resin. Then from the results of research Farooqi and Srivastava (1990) found silica, sulfur and vitamin C. Chemical is very beneficial for healthy teeth and mouth where trimetilamin and vitamin C help the healing and repair of gum tissue. Chloride is useful to remove stains on teeth, while silica can react as a polisher. Then the presence of sulfur is known to feel warm and distinctive smell, as for fluoride is useful for healthy teeth as the prevention of dental caries by strengthening layer of email and reduce wore on acid produced by bacteria.



Siwak as a substance antibakterial

El-Mostehy et al (1998) reported that plants contain siwak antibakterial substances. Darout et al. (2000) Reporting that the antimicrobial and cleansing effect on the miswak has been shown by the variation of chemical ingredients that can be detected in the extract. This effect is believed to relate to the high content of Sodium Chloride and Chloride Pottasium like salvadourea and salvadorine, saponins, tannins, vitamin C, silica and resins, as well cyanogenic glycoside and benzylsothio-cyanate. It is reported that there is a natural component anionik on this plant species that contain antimicrobial agents against some bacteria. Nitrate (NO3-) were reported affect active transport in Escherichia coli porline as well as the aldosa from E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis. Nitrate also affect active transport and oxidative phosphorylation uptake of oxygen by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and thus hampered Stapyhylococcus aureus.

According to research results Gazi et al. (1987) crude extract on a log siwak made toothpaste mouthwash fluid, examined antiplaknya properties and their effects on the composition of the bacteria that make up plaque and cause a decrease in gram-negative rod.

Authors (2005) in the thesis entitled "Influence of Wood Powder Extract Powder (Salvadora persica) Against Streptococcus mutans bacteria growth, and Staphylococcus aureus With Diffusion Plate Method To" found that extracts of wood powders are antibakterial siwak'm against bacteria S. mutans and S. aureus.



Siwak as "oral cleaner device" (mouth purifier)

Siwak is very effective as a means of cleaning the mouth. Almas (2002) examine the comparative effects of extracts siwak with Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) is often used as a liquid mouthwash (mouthwash) and anti-plaque substances on human dentin with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). Almas reported that 50% extract siwak and 0.2% CHX has the same effect on human dentin, but extracts more siwak remove stains layer (smear layer) to dentin.

A study of Periodontal Treatment (regular dental care) by taking a sample of 480 adults aged 35-65 years in the city of Makkah and Jeddah by researchers from King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, indicates that the Periodontal Treatment for people of Mecca and Jeddah are lower than the treatment to be given to people in other countries, this indicates low public needs Makkah and Jeddah on Periodontal Treatment.

Other research by making the powder (powder) siwak as additional materials in toothpaste compared with the use of toothpaste without siwak powder mixture showed that the percentage of best results for perfectly healthy teeth is to use toothpaste with pollen grains siwak, because the grains siwak powder is able to reach between your teeth perfectly and took the leftovers are still lodged in between your teeth. This is encouraging companies in the world toothpaste siwak include powders in their toothpaste products. WHO (World Health Organization) helped make siwak as one of the health commodity needs to be preserved and cultivated.

Following the Sunnah of the Prophet

Therefore, for a Muslim, following the Sunnah or not a "free choice". For the practice Islamic teachings according to the line set by the Prophet is a duty that must be obeyed, as was said in the Quran: "And what the Apostle gave to you, then accept it, and what he forbids you, then juhilah." (Q.S. al-Hashr: 7)

Behavior of Muhammad (PBUH) called the Sunnah. According to Islam, Sunnah is the source of the second law after the Qur'an. Everyday life and behavior of the Prophet, even acknowledged by Western scholars, is a complete picture of human perfection. And none of a human being on earth who followed his behavior by millions of people until this moment in the history of human civilization. Character of the Prophet (PBUH) is the perfection of character in a person. Allah asserted: "Akhlaq Prophet is the Qur'an". In another verse, He said: "It has been present in the Messenger of good role models for you." (Q.S. al-Ahzab: 21). In other word of God: "And We sent thee (Muhammad), but to be a mercy for all creatures." (Surah al Anbiya ': 107) All that has been recorded in the history of Islam which is the command of Allah (swt). How many among the salaf (earlier generations) who admire and try to align their life with Sunna. From morning till night.

Among the Muslims have agreed that the Sunnah is the key to understanding the messages of the Qur'an and the device guides pengurai of-control propositions are available in it. Quran is derived includes only the basic principles of Islamic law and globally as a rule of life, whereas the Sunnah teaches implementation instructions, so the Sunnah is required if someone wanted to practice Islam correctly in order to become a Muslim is essential. This is stated in the Quran, "Who would obey the Apostle, so he obedient to God." (Surah al-Nisa ': 80) Therefore, for a Muslim, following the Sunnah or not bukanlan a "free choice". For the practice Islamic teachings according to the line set by the Prophet is a duty that must be obeyed, as was said in the Quran: "And what the Apostle gave to you, then accept it, and what he forbids you, then juhilah." (Q.S. al-Hashr: 7)

Life is very short and full of intrigue with all forms and manner that is difficult to change. Everything just feels wonderful and meaningful if we follow what is taught by the Prophet. Each activity is directed to God is not going away from the relationship with his life, even just to make ne more like and meridhoinya. There is no gift greater pleasure than a day passed by in peace and harmony. We try to start the day activities with the remembrance of Allah and His Messenger, when up in the morning, then go through the morning with the guidance of the Prophet (PBUH).

In any jobs to start, the Prophet always initiated actions in the name of God. The Prophet said: "Every deed that does not begin with the name of God (reading) Bismillahirrahmanirrahim - is cut off (from the divine blessings or His mercy)." (Tafseer Ibn Katheer). Furthermore, this behavior should we align with the teachings of Qur 'an, and following the Sunnah. Thus, this short life will feel very meaningful, full of wisdom and beautiful. Compassion of the Prophet have, we adopted. Love of neighbor and all the creatures of our God keep. Devotion to the glory of life of the Prophet of Islam, our Practice. Sacrifice of the Prophet for peace of mankind, we watch. The simplicity of the Prophet in everyday life, we follow. Sincerity of the Prophet in doing a good deed, we are practicing. So, by following the noble Prophet that conduct to use ruqyah, we will be glorious, both in the eyes of God or the human eye.